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What is Michael Porter's Industry Analysis model?
Prof. Michael Porter identified 5 Forces that impact the profitability of an Industry in his classic book (1980) on Competitive Strategy.
There is always the possibility that new firms may enter an industry. This is called the threat of entry in Porter's model. In theory, any firm should be able to enter and exit a market, and if free entry and exit exists, then profits always should be average. In reality, however, some industries possess characteristics that protect the high profit levels of firms currently in the market and make it difficult for additional firms to enter the market. These characteristics are barriers to entry.
When industry profits increase, one expects additional firms to enter the market to take advantage of the high profit levels, over time driving down profits for all firms in the industry. When profits decrease, one would expect some firms to exit the market thus restoring a market equilibrium. Falling prices, or the expectation that future prices will fall, deters rivals from entering a market.
It is easy to enter an Industry if there is:
It is difficult to enter if there is:
It is easy to exit an Industry if there are:
It is difficult to exit if there are:
In Porter's model, substitute products refer to products in other industries that meet the same/similar need. To an economist, a threat of substitutes exists when a product's demand is affected by the price change of a substitute product.
The power of buyers is the impact that customers have on a producing industry. In general, when buyer power is strong, the relationship to the producing industry is near to what an economist terms a monopsony - a market in which there are many suppliers and one buyer. Under such market conditions, the buyer sets the price. In reality few pure monopsonies exist, but frequently there is some asymmetry between a producing industry and buyers.
Suppliers can exert an influence on the producing industry, such as selling raw materials at a high price to capture some of the industry's profits. This describes supplier power.
If rivalry among firms in an industry is low, the industry is considered to be disciplined. This discipline may result from the industry's history of competition, the role of a leading firm, or informal compliance with a generally understood code of conduct. Explicit collusion generally is illegal and not an option; in low-rivalry industries competitive moves must be constrained informally. However, a maverick firm seeking a competitive advantage can displace the otherwise disciplined market.
In pursuing an advantage over its rivals, a firm can choose from several competitive moves:
Porter, Michael E., Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, 1980.
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